How to Study the Structure and Function of Human Skin
Learn about the histology of skin in humans.The skin of humans is composed of several histologic layers that are different than other creatures in the animal kingdom. This histologic structure is important for various reasons. One of them is its use as a selective physical barrier against foreign pathogens and harmful chemicals. At this level it serves as part of the nonspecific immune system in humans. This structure has an epithelium that is composed of cells that are of several layers in thickness. It is called a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Study the types of cells in humans skin.Keratinization refers to the synthesis of the protein keratin by certain cells of the skin. Stratification refers to an epithelium type that is of several layers of cells in thickness. This type of epithelium functions as a formidable physical barrier that is usually part of the nonspecific immune system. This epithelium of the skin has hydrophobic chemical structure that is non-polar in its chemical character. For this reason skin of humans is permeable to hydrophobic chemicals such as organic compounds that serve as solvents in chemical reactions. For this reason students of organic chemistry labs usually wear gloves that are impermeable to hydrophobic chemicals.
Learn about the various skin medical disorders.The skin is composed of several types of cells. The most important cellular type that populates the skin epithelium is the melanocyte type of cells. This type of cells is responsible for the synthesis of the pigment melanin. This organic compound is a pigment that has special chromophore of conjugated double bonds. This chromophore imparts the brown color to the skin of humans. Melanocytes are important clinically due to their involvement in several skin diseases such as pigmentary diseases and skin cancer that is called melanoma. These two types of skin diseases are of importance for the clinical dermatologist from the diagnostic point of view. These medical disorders have distinct morphologic structures in the pathologic skin.
Study the types of melanocytes medical disorders.Examples include the disorder of albinism. This skin pigmentary disorder is characterized by the deficiency of the pigment melanin in the skin. This in turn gives the skin a white color that is easy to diagnose clinically. Other disorders of this pigment include various concentrations of this pigment in the skin. Some fungal infections of the skin are characterized by distinct skin color that is typical for these skin disorders. Also moles of the skin usually have distinct characteristic color that characterizes them and make them easily diagnosed clinically. These skin moles are of various types that are all non malignant tumors of the skin. However they can predispose to skin cancer under certain conditions.
Study the pathophysiology of skin moles.Some types of skin moles have predisposition to become cancerous with the passage of time. Other types are very stable chemically and do not transform into dysplastic malignant cells. Moles can arise in the various types of the skin cells. For pigmentary skin disorders they usually involve the cellular type of melanocytes. Melanomas are the one type of skin cancers that involve the melanocytes of the skin. Chemical transformations of the genetic material in these cells by the effect of various reasons can predispose to mutagenesis of these cells. An example is the effect of highly energetic electromagnetic radiation such as UV and x-ray radiations. These radiations can induce the breaking of chemical bonds between DNA bases of melanocytes. This in turn can cause a change in its chemical structure. Also various types of chemicals can induce chemical changes in the genetic material of these cells.
Learn about the chemicals that can trigger skin cancer.Many organic compounds that are able to penetrate the cellular envelope of the melanocytes nucleus can react with DNA bases. This can in turn cause chemical changes in the intact chemical structure of the DNA molecules of these cells. Other cellular types in the skin are the keratinocytes. These cells are responsible for the production of the important protein keratin. This protein has protective function against harmful forms of electromagnetic radiations. It probably functions by absorbing light waves that have potential of altering the DNA structure of these cells.
Study the types of cells in the skin of humans.Also the skin epithelium has other cellular types that include cells of immunological origin. These cells have protective function and form a first line of defense in the body against pathogens and antigenic materials. The skin in humans serves other functions such as the synthesis of vitamin D. This vitamin is important for the normal physiological function of bones in the body. This organic compound is selectively synthesized in the skin and the kidney cells of humans. Exposure to UV light is mandatory for the biochemical synthesis of this vitamin in the body. Edema of the skin is a prominent medical manifestation of several medical disorders.
Study the physiology of edematous skin.It involves the accumulation of fluids within the skin surface. This disorder is usually a manifestation of hypertension in affected individuals. Erythema refers to a process of reddening of the skin surface. This is usually caused due to the dilatation of blood vessels in the skin by the effect of vasoactive compounds such as histamines. This occurs typically in episodes of acute skin inflammation. Acute skin inflammation is usually accompanied by the secretion of vasoactive amines that can dilate the skin blood vessels. This can potentially form erythema and reddening of the skin in addition to the development of edematous skin. For all these reasons, the study of the skin physiology is important for the medical practitioner of the various medical specialties.
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Date: 09.12.2018, 07:07 / Views: 61561